Altering rider behavior through software features and hardware constraints




Industrial Design


Final Year Project




Having tried many different mode of transportation over the years, I have been particularly interested in the area of last-mile transportation. The most recent trend is the dock-less electric scooters which we start to see in cities across the world. Like any other disruptive transportation alternatives, the electric scooters have brought chaos along with convenience in almost all occasions.

Problems with Dock-less Scooters (Ex. Bird, Lime)

– Clogged Sidewalk
– Poor Driving Behavior
– Limited Range
– Short Lifespan
– Accidents and Injuries
– Lack of Enforcement


The result is a foldable scooter that parks upright, reducing parking floor space. It alters user driving behavior through design constraints physically by hardware features and digitally by mobile app. There is a minimal dock for wireless charging, applicable at popular spots such as bus and metro stops, or commercial spaces. Streets remain organised and foot traffic is brought to the charging/parking nodes. It allows quick and frequent charging, eliminating the need of overnight charging or battery depletion during the day.

No more tilted kickstand
Scooter stand is revealed when the deck is folded upwards

Folding Mechanism
Pull-to-Unlock, Fold-to-Stand

Retractable Hook
A place to hang bags, preventing additional weight from putting the user out of balance

A straightforward handlebar
The handlebar is shaped to support the user’s grip ergonomically. The metallic grips reduce the collection of dirt or stain and provide a surface that is easy to clean.

In order to accommodate the upward folding mechanism, the whole design of the scooter is reconsidered. Complex internal mechanisms such as batteries, electric and brake cables must be avoided beyond the folding joint. As a result, the complicated parts are allocated so solely to the front part of the scooter.

Double Front Wheels with Centre-Suspension
Two front wheels enhance user’s control at all levels of expertise. They also provide support for the heavy front section of the scooter

Suspension Assisted Airless Tires
The airless tires are designed to withstand long term public usage and assist in shock absorption

Adjustable Knob
The reflector within the casing rotates on a horizontal axis, allows the user to tweak to their most comfortable light setting.

Stop and Signal Light
The back light consists of a stop and left-right signal lights within a U-shape tube.

By only exposing the outer side, the inner circumference can be used as a handle for unlocking the deck joint (for folding upright). The half exposed U-shape cylindrical light tube is visible from a wide range of angles, increasing the user’s visibility to other people (cars, pedestrians, cyclists, etc.).

Fender Brake
The shorter deck positions the user’s foot to be ready for braking whenever required. The action is made even more convenient with the addition of a specifically designed stepping pad on the fender.

Park to Charge
As the scooter parks into the dock, it’s charging surface comes in contact with the dock and charges wireless. The user may be given incentives to dock the scooter, through time credit or motivated by social ethics

Reduce floor space usage when folded upright. A thoughtful feature for the other users of the sidewalk

A Dock to be placed everywhere
Without any port to plug in, the scooter can be docked or removed instantaneously. This feature compensates the lack of battery range that electric scooters often face, by providing a charging method that can be used frequently and effortlessly.

No More Chaotic Dock-less Scooters
The charging dock is deduced down to its minimum, achieving a perfect balance between free floating parking and a complete charging dock. The dock is shaped to lightly conceal the scooter from busy streets and provide a convenient spot for the scooters to be parked orderly.